|For the others,
it is enough to follow the same rule.
will be complete without inverted time included in its teachings.
times, musicians have only improvised in
terms of melody, Cado has created the harmonic improvisation
and feels rather optimistic that in the future people
will study and make improvisations both harmonically and
that makes improvisations and harmony will be complete without
In short, Cado will launch
a book entitled "XX Century." Therein
one will find greater explanations of inverted
time, harmonic improvisations, study techniques and
Music is 20% training, 20%
culture, and 60% the enlightenment of the
artist's creative capability.One may acquire
training and culture at music schools and universities.
For all to have an idea of
how important this artist is
to music, it is necessary to discoss
the history of music. Initially,music was
only melodic.First came vocal music
and 4-shaped time ( natural ).Then
musicians constructed the first scale and
people discovered tonal relationships
and other scales.
When music was solely melodical, musicians
composed counterpoints with two, three or more melodies
played at the same time, reaching polyphonies of up to 60
voices.This was during the
baroque period.Bach discovered a relationship
between notes when played at the same time. Music,
which was only horizontal, became vertical(Debussy
made harmony before this, but using another technique).
Since then, therehave been many
harmonic discoveries such as the seven chords
of tonality, chords borrowed from other tonalities
and modulations with artists such as: Bach, Mozart and Ravel.
Mozart took musical discoveries
to extremes, therefore everything was known at the level
of functional harmony. The first measures were in 4, 2,
3, 5, and 7, quaternaries, binaries, ternaries, and later
on alternated, simple and compound measures.
It was believed that great artists of the
past had already discovered everything at the level of musical
time (except for the inverted time) until
the end of the XIX Century.
Musical theory comprises of all discoveries
that were put into books and apostilles. It
is not like science, which never ends.Many
musicians belive that all musical discoveries have been
made; However when the manipulation of mathomatics new music
can be created using past findings.
Many musicians have
tried to make new discoveries,but,
universities with musical
programs have failed.
a forerunner in Brazilian Pop/Jazz style,
which combines pop music sound, improvisations of Jazz and
Brazil's best rhythms like samba and baião.
When Cado brought out his compositions and
arrangements in the 90's, in Rio de Janeiro, not only did
he conquer the cream of Brazilian jazz, but he
also influence in the musical scene.
Considering the musicians who work with hybrid harmonies
(Chick Corea, Quincy Jones, Weather Report, etc.), none
have used second voices so far, as they
would inevitably get the tierce (note which defines whether
the chord is major or minor). People, as well as schools
and universities always thought that hybrid harmonies were
not for second voices. Now, this thought can
When Cado was 20 years old, he developed a technique to
solve this problem, using second voices in hybrids.
Before talking about how to use second voices in hybrids,
it is important to define second voices.
Obviously, musician will choose which interval they will
use. The 8th , The 5th and unison intervals should not be
used because they tend to disappear. The 9ths ,4ths
and 7ths intervals should not be used because 10ths (one
eight above tierces) and the 6ths are better.
When they are adapted to a chord,( it will be 10 minor,
10 major, 6 minor or 6 natural.)
Therefore, they will be less sharps. When the musician chooses
a fixed interval, he might consider using 10
minor or 6 natural, for they are the best. This intervals
are sharper, but there is no problem using
them. The 10th interval has a beautiful effect
when played by piano and together
flute. The same applies to the 6ths in the
bass and the guitar, but the results are awful when the
guitar and the trumpet play together. Other
instrumental combination should
be explored too.
Seconds in hybrids
First, we should choose where to
place the second voice. It is usually placed at
the last part of the arrangement before the song is over.
One can observe which note
the main melody does not get and which is the interval when
the second voice is in the tierce while that note is being
played. Afterwards, we would want to use
this interval, for the tierce will never appear in the second
voice, as the main melody does not get this melody (when
it is adapted to the chord), as well as 1 and 9 flat (when
it is 6th natural). If we choose the 10th interval, the
note will be 5 (when it in adapted) or 5 and 11 sharp (when
it is 10th minor).
Which chords to choose:
- We can change this hybrid chord
to a common chord, that is because we know that if we
mix the harmony with common and hybrid
chords, it won't change very much hybrid sounds of harmonies
with only hybrid chords. Most of those kind of music,
the harmony use to already be mixed together
hybrid and common chords.
- We can change the hybrid chord to a common chord
and play it quarter.There is a very good relationship
between quarters and hybrid sounds.
- We can choose another hybrid
- We can choose another chord.It can be common
and you may choose if play it quarter or not.
It is important to bear in mind that in modern music, composition
and arrangement combine themselves ( i.e.,
composition is arrangement and vice versa.) Considering this
concept, it is important to know the second voice is and where
it will be placed in the moment of musical composition (
i.e., composing and harmonizing already thinking about the
No arrangement maker/composer
will be complete without using second voice and hybrids.
The last related musical discovery -the Multi Tonic System
- was made in 1903. This is symmetry and is used
nowadays by Hermeto Paschoal, Quincy Jones, Chick Corea Electric
Band, Wayne Shorter, Egberto Gismonti and by other jazz artists.
Orchestras in the first half of the XX Century also used it.
Present day musicians have tried to revolutionize
musical course-plans. For example,
Hermeto Paschoal's Som da Aura (Aura's Sound)(making arrangements
for human speech melodies), Pat Metheny's CD Zero Tolerance
For Silence (playing melodies and harmonies by loosening the
strings), and Chick Corea (composing songs that are only conventions,
with chords in the middle). In the first half of the XX Century,
although using contemporary composition techniques (techniques
aimsd at people's cognition,not at beauty),
musicians tried with non-conventional scales
(mere combination of scales that already existed). They also
tried to escape tonality by means of fugues (they sound as
tonal as any chromatic), dodecaphonic melodies, which try
to dissentail from tonality by playing all the 12 notes, without
repeating them (there is always an obvious tonal relation
with a 3rd and 5th ,from a note to another),etc.
The degree of sophistication of the work of Cado
is incredibly great, both in harmony and in melody, furthermore,
it is of an undescribable beauty.
After we had heard so much about musical theory, people
might think that this is music
only for musicians, but, in fact, Cado's pieces of work attract
people endowed with a good cultural background
and a sensitivity to appreciate such